Malignant neoplasm of bronchus and lung is a cancerous tumour which is located in the lungs and in the bronchus. The bronchus is the term used for the two main airways of the body and join the windpipe to each lung. Both the left and right bronchus divide into secondary bronchi which are smaller tubes inside the lungs and in turn each of these divide into bronchioles which are even smaller tubes. Tumours can occur in any of these areas and can become malignant leading to the development of lung cancer.
Lung cancer is very common with almost 50,000 people being diagnosed with the condition annually. The most common cause of the disease has been found to be smoking with over 80% of all cases being found among smokers and passive smokers. People who have been smokers for a long period of time are particularly at risk especially those who took up the habit at a young age. Although pipe and cigar smokers are more at risk than those who do not use tobacco products it is cigarette smoking that has proved to be most harmful. The condition is found equally in both men and women although people diagnosed with the condition tend to be middle aged or older.
There are a few other risk factors which increase a person's chances of developing lung cancer including air pollution, lowered immunity and exposure to certain chemicals however these risks are low.
The earlier the condition is diagnosed the better the prognosis so anyone who experiences these symptoms should see a doctor as soon as possible.
A doctor will perform spirometry tests and perhaps take sputum samples. The patient may then be referred to hospital for a CT scan and bronchoscopy or an endobronchial ultrasound. It is possible that a lung biopsy may also be required.
There are several treatments for lung cancer and these may depend on the stage the disease has reached. Surgery may be required to remove part of the lung or even a whole lung and other treatments such as chemotherapy and radiotherapy may be needed. These can be carried out on their own or in conjunction with other treatments. There are also some biological therapies prescribed for lung cancer. Radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy are treatments that may be offered to advanced lung cancer patients where a tumour is causing difficulty in breathing as it is blocking the airways. Some patients who are unable to have surgery may receive photodynamic therapy which uses lasers to kill cancer cells.
Even if cancer is very advanced treatments may still be offered to prolong life and reduce symptoms.